A stand-alone living space that is separate from the main single family home. The unit can be attached, within, or detached from the primary residence, and must include a kitchen, bathroom, and sleeping space. HUD Case Study
The transformation of a building that is no longer in use into a new purpose, such as turning a defunct school into apartments. Compton Construction
According to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), housing is affordable when housing costs do not exceed 30% of a household’s gross monthly income.
The median divides the income distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median income and one-half above the median. HUD used the median income for families in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to calculate income limits for eligibility in a variety of housing programs. HUD estimates the median family income for… Read more »
Additional density provided to developers under the local zoning code as an incentive to create public amenities or in the case of inclusionary zoning, affordable housing.
A document written with input from community members that outlines the vision for future growth and development of a town, city or county (political jurisdiction) over a given period of time.
A Continuum of Care (CoC) is a community’s plan to organize and deliver housing and services that meet the specific needs of homeless individuals and families as they move toward stable housing and maximum self-sufficiency. Launched in 1994, HUD’s CoC approach helps communities across the nation address the problems of homelessness in a coordinated, comprehensive… Read more »
The permission to build a larger building (in terms of height or floor/area ratio) than would otherwise be allowed under prevailing zoning as an intended incentive or offset for providing below-market housing units or other community benefits.
The involuntary movement of residents due to changes in socioeconomic conditions.
Equality is the principle of treating everyone the same. Equality is not the same as equity (see definition).
The term equity refers to the practice of giving individuals the resources and opportunities they need to be successful.
A calculation used in zoning that gives some parameters around the permitted size and volume of a building on a lot, allowing for flexibility in the spacing and shape of the buildings(s). The calculation is determined by dividing the floor area of the building(s) on the lot by the area of the lot. For example,… Read more »
A form-based code is a land development regulation that fosters predictable built results and a high-quality public realm by using physical form (rather than separation of uses in traditional zoning) as the organizing principle for the code. A form-based code is a regulation, not a mere guideline, adopted into city, town, or county law. Form-based… Read more »
The gap between the amount a building is expected to produce from rents and the amount developers will need to pay lenders and investors. This gap can stop affordable housing development before it even begins, leaving few options for the millions of low-income families looking for safe, affordable homes. Urban Institute
Formerly called the Section 8 program, this is the federal government’s major program for assisting very low-income families, the elderly, and the disabled to afford decent, safe, and sanitary housing in the private market. Since housing assistance is provided on behalf of the family or individual, participants are able to find their own housing, including… Read more »
Housing trust funds are distinct funds established by city, county or state governments that generally receive ongoing dedicated sources of public funding to support the preservation and production of housing affordable to lower-income households.
Local requirement and/or incentive for developers to create below-market rental apartments or for-sale homes in connection with the local zoning approval of a proposed market-rate development project. Often accompanied by “density bonus” to offset the cost of providing the below market-rate units. Below market-rate units are sometimes required to be produced at the same location… Read more »
Policies and practices, within and across institutions, that intentionally or not, produce outcomes that chronically favor or put a racial group at a disadvantage. Examples can be found in our school disciplinary practices, our criminal justice system and in many employment sectors with regard to hiring, firing and promotions. The Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community… Read more »
Public or community-owned entities created for a single purpose: to acquire, manage, maintain and re-purpose vacant, abandoned, and foreclosed properties.
The LIHTC program effectively uses tax policy to help develop affordable rental housing for low and very low-income families. Originally part of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the LIHTC program leverages private capital and investor equity to support the development of new and rehabilitated affordable rental housing. The credits are competitively priced. In Virginia,… Read more »
Older housing stock with fewer amenities which cannot command current market rents. Market-affordable housing has no government subsidy as part of its financing, so it can be renovated triggering substantial rent increases, or torn down without penalty.
“Not In My Backyard” is a phrase used to express opposition by local citizens to locating a civic project that, though needed by the larger community, is perceived to be unsightly, dangerous or likely to lead to decreased property values.
Also known as market affordable housing, these are older rental properties with fewer amenities and rents below market-rate housing. This housing contains no subsidy, so it is at risk of rent increases or being demolished to build new market-rate housing. NOAHs usually exist in the moderate income range.
Based on a Housing First philosophy, PSH helps individuals with chronic health conditions who face barriers to housing, find and maintain housing. The belief behind Housing First is that housing is a cornerstone to stability and comes before treatment. PSH begins by providing individuals with housing, and then offers residents the option of support services…. Read more »
In order to assess the magnitude of the experience of homelessness, localities count the number of sheltered and unsheltered homeless individuals every year over a number of days or at a Point in Time (PIT) at the end of January. The count is part of a requirement by the Department of Housing and Urban Development… Read more »
A trade agreement of sorts proposed by a person wishing to change the zoning of a property. The trade, or proffer is a voluntary negotiation for cash or dedications of property for a land use that may impose public costs to offset any negative consequences that could result from the zoning change. Virginia Association of… Read more »
Public housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing comes in all sizes and types, from scattered single family houses to high-rise apartments. HUD administers federal aid to local housing agencies (HAs) that manage the housing for low-income residents at rents… Read more »
Land owned by a public entity, such as a local government, school district, parks authority, or transit agency. A public entity may use this land for development of affordable housing; offer it to development entities at a discount; or sell it and use the proceeds to fund affordable housing development.
The Qualified Allocation Plan (QAP) is a set of eligibility requirements that a state creates and uses to determine which projects receive low income housing tax credit (LIHTC) allocations. The QAP is reviewed and modified on a regular basis to reflect changing priorities.
A historic government-backed strategy preventing people of color, particularly African Americans, from living in certain neighborhoods or communities. Neighborhoods were color-coded based on the composition, quality and opportunities present in a community. The more dilapidated and impoverished neighborhoods were deemed ‘red’ concentrating African Americans in the only places where they were allowed to find homes.
A voluntary program of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) that seeks to preserve public housing by providing public housing agencies with access to more stable funding to make needed improvements to properties. To address the tremendous backlog of deferred maintenance for the nation’s public housing. housing authorities can make the necessary repairs… Read more »
Government-sponsored (local, state or federal level) economic assistance programs to alleviate housing costs and expenses for low and moderate income households usually earning no more than 80% of the area median income (AMI). Forms of subsidies include direct housing subsidies, nonprofit housing, public housing and rent supplements. The largest housing subsidy program is the mortgage… Read more »
A financial tool used by local government to promote economic development in a designated, underdeveloped area, or area whose appeal would not increase without aid from a public subsidy. A TIF district earmarks increases in future property tax revenues that result from increases in real estate values in the district. The tax revenue can be… Read more »
Compact, mixed-use development centered around a public transportation hub that promotes walkability and the use of public transit. Transit-Oriented Development Institute
White privilege, or ‘historically accumulated white privilege,’ refers to whites’ historical and contemporary advantages in access to quality education, decent jobs, liveable wages, homeownership, retirement benefits and wealth. Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change
A term for communities or groups of people who are in favor of development. A YIMBY typically believes that when there are more housing units available, housing costs don’t increase as rapidly, which mean that people of diverse economic backgrounds have the opportunity to live in the region.
The separation or division of a municipality into districts, the regulation of buildings and structures in such districts in accordance with their construction and the nature and extent of their use, and the dedication of such districts to particular uses designed to serve the general welfare. Today, the concept of a mix of uses in… Read more »